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Amoxicillin

Generic Name (active ingredient): Amoxicillin
Brand Name: Amoxil

Amoxicillin is broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic for oral administration. It is used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases caused by susceptible microorganisms: bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, infections of the gastrointestinal tract, gynecological infections, infectious diseases, skin and soft tissues, listeriosis, leptospirosis, gonorrhea, etc.

How does the medication work?
Amoxicillin belongs to a group of half-synthetic penicillin antibiotics. Amoxicillin works by inhibiting the production of transpeptidase(enzyme that is important in biosynthesis of peptidoglycan). Peptidoglycan, or murein, is a polymer that consists of sugars and amino acids, participates in formation a mesh-like layer outside the bacterial plasma membrane of bacteria (Eubacteria, not Archaebacteria), forming the cell wall.

When Amoxil is prescribed?

  • Bacterial infections of the upper respiratory system infection (nasal passages, sinuses or throat : sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis)
  • Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory system (chronic and acute bronchitis, pneumonia)
  • Bacterial infections of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis)
  • Urogenital infections (pyelonephritis)
  • Middle ear infections (otitis media)
  • Skin and soft tissue diseases caused by bacteria (boils, abscesses, cellulitis, impetigo)
  • Vaginal infections following childbirth or abortion
  • Gonorrhea(sexually transmitted diseases)
  • Sepsis
  • Leptospirosis
  • Bacterial endocarditis
  • Listeriosis
  • Blood infections (septicemia or blood poisoning)
  • Dental abscess
  • Paratyphoid and typhoid fever
  • Peptic ulcers (in combination with other medicines) caused by Helicobacter pylori
  • Meningitis
  • Sepsis
  • Leptospirosis
  • Gastrointestinal infections(enterocolitis, enteric fever, cholangitis, cholecystitis)
  • Salmonellosis
  • Lyme disease

What should I know before taking Amoxicillin antibiotic?
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Amoxicillin or to any other medicines such as:

  • Ampicillin, Peniccilin, Bicillin, cephalosporin antibiotics,

Do not take Amoxicillin if any of the below conditions apply to you:

  • Infectious mononucleosis, lymphoid leukosis
  • Severe infections of the gastrointestinal tract accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting
  • Infections caused by viruses and fungi
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Renal failure

Before taking Amoxicillin, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:

  • Allergic diatesis
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Hay fever
  • Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeed, you should take Amoxicillin only under a strict control of your doctor. Amoxicillin belongs to a pregnancy category B meaning that it is probably safe to use it during pregnancy, although the full risk for fetus is unknown. You should talk to your doctor about full risk and benefits of taking the medication during pregnancy.

How to take Amoxicillin :
Amoxicillin is available in the forms of capsules, tablets, chewable tablets, and powder for oral Suspension. All Amoxicillin products are taken orally (by mouth).
Dosage of Amoxicillin is prescribed individually by physician.
Take the entire amount of Amoxicillin prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return.
If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.

What are the side effects of Amoxicillin ?
Amoxicillin may cause the following side effects:

Allergic reactions: urticaria, erythema, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, in rare cases - fever, joint pain, eosinophilia, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, reactions similar to serum sickness and in individual cases - anaphylactic shock.
Digestive system: dysbacteriosis, taste changes, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, stomatitis, glossitis, abnormal liver function, a moderate increase in liver transaminases; rarely - pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: agitation, anxiety, insomnia, ataxia, confusion, behavioral change, depression, peripheral neuropathy, headache, dizziness, convulsive reaction.
Urinary system: rarely - interstitial nephritis.
Hemopoietic system: leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, anemia.
Other: shortness of breath, tachycardia, candidiasis of the vagina, superinfection (especially in patients with chronic diseases or low resistance of the organism).

If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.

Which are Amoxicillin overdose symptoms?
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, disorders of water-electrolyte balance. In case of overdose seek immediate medical attention.

Which other medicines may affect Amoxicillin ?
Amoxicillin may interact with the following groups of drugs:

  • Allopurinol (gout treatment)
  • Birth control pills
  • Certain antibiotics
  • Cancer treatment (methotrexate)
  • Uricosuric drugs
  • Typhoid vaccine

For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Amoxicillin, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.

How should I store Amoxicillin ?
You should store the medication at dry and protected from light place out of reach of children. Do not store the medication at the bathroom.