Ampicillin

Generic Name (active ingredient): Ampicillin
Brand Name: Omnipen, Principen

Ampicillin trihydrate is a broad spectrum penicillin antibiotic that belongs to a group of half-synthetic penicillin antibiotics. It is used to treat infectious diseases caused by sensitive to the drug microorganisms: bronchitis, pneumonia, dysentery, salmonella, pertussis, pyelonephritis, endocarditis, meningitis, sepsis.

How does the medication work?
Ampicillin is a half-synthetic penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic. Ampicillin exerts bactericidal action against a wide variety of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative. Bactericidal effect is associated with inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell wall. Ampicillin works by blocking the enzynme traspeptidase which in necessary for peptigodlycan synthesis. Peptidoglycan is a polymer that participates in formation of bacteria cell wall.
Ampicillin is inactivated under the action of penicillinase and is acid-resistant.

When Ampicillin prescribed?
This antibiotic is used to treat infections caused by sensitive to Ampicillin microorganisms:

  • Infections of the upper and lower respiratory system (bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary abscess)
  • Infections of the bile passages (cholecystitis, cholangitis)
  • Urogenital infections (pyelitis, pyelonephritis, cystitis)
  • Infections of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Gynecological infections
  • Skin and soft tissue infections
  • Infections of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis)
  • Sepsis, septic endocarditis
  • Meningitis
  • Erysipelas
  • Scarlet fever
  • Gonorrhea

What should I know before taking Ampicillin?
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Ampicillin or to any other antibiotics such as:

  • Amoxicillin, Bicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics (including cephalosporins)

Do not take Ampicillin if any of the below conditions apply to you:

  • Severe kidney diseases (renal failure)
  • Liver diseases (hepatic failure, liver cirrhosis)
  • Infections caused by viruses or fungi
  • Breastfeeding
  • Pregnancy

If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeed, you should take Ampicillin only under a strict control of your doctor. Ampicillin belongs to a pregnancy category B meaning that is probably safe to use the medication during pregnancy, although the full risk if unknown. Talk to your doctor about risk and benefits of taking this drug during pregnancy.

Before taking Ampicillin, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:

  • Hey fever
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Urticaria
  • Dermatitis

How to take Ampicillin:
Ampicillin is available in the forms of capsules, tablets and oral suspension. These forms of Ampicillin are taken orally (by mouth). Dosage of Ampicillin is prescribed individually by physician.

Take the entire amount of Ampicillin prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return.
If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.

What are the side effects of Ampicillin?
Ampicillin may cause the following side effects:

  • Allergic reactions: skin rash, hives, Quincke's edema, itching, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, in rare cases-anaphylactic shock
  • Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, stomatitis, pseudomembranous colitis, dysbacteriosis, increasing the activity of liver transaminases
  • Hemopoietic system: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis
  • Other: oral thrush, vaginal candidiasis

If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.

Which are Ampicillin overdose symptoms?
If you overdose Ampicillin, seek immediate medical attention. Overdose symptoms include: diarrhea, vomiting, liver dysfunction, dermatological reactions

Which other medicines may affect Ampicillin?
Ampicillin may interact with the following groups of drugs:

  • Uricosuric drugs (probenicid)
  • Gout treatment (allopurinol)
  • Oral birth control pills (oral contraceptives)
  • Blood thinners (warfarin)
  • Other antibiotics

For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Ampicillin, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.

How should I store Ampicillin?
You should store the medication at dry and protected from light place out of reach of children.

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