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Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Clinical use of the drug is currently limited because it causes serious adverse reactions and, above all, has a toxic effect on the bone marrow.
How does the medication work?
Mechanism of antimicrobial action involves a violation of protein synthesis of microorganisms. Chloramphenicol has a bacteriostatic action. It is active against Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.; Gram-negative bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Yersinia spp., Proteus spp., Rickettsia spp.; Spirochaetaceae, and some large viruses.
Chloramphenicol is active against strains resistant to penicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide.
Resistance of microorganisms to chloramphenicol develops relatively slowly.
When Chloramphenicol is prescribed?
What should I know before taking Chloramphenicol?
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Chloramphenicol or to any other medicines such as:
Do not take Chloramphenicol if any of the below conditions apply to you:
Before taking Chloramphenicol, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:
If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeed, you should avoid taking Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol belongs to a pregnancy category C meaning that it may have a toxic effect on the fetus. Chloramphenicol penetrates into the breast milk in high concentrations (including ophthalmic formulations) and may have myelotoxic effect, so it should not be prescribed for nursing women.
How to take Chloramphenicol:
Chloramphenicol is available in the forms of capsules, eye drops, tablets, coated tablets, powder for injections, liniment.
Dosage of Chloramphenicol is prescribed individually by physician.
Take the entire amount of Chloramphenicol prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return.
If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.
What are the side effects of Chloramphenicol?
Chloramphenicol may cause the following side effects:
- reversible (dose dependent): reticulopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia;
- irreversible (not dose dependent, observed in people with genetic predisposition): aplastic anemia, prognostically unfavorable
If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.
Which are Chloramphenicol overdose symptoms?
If you overdose Chloramphenicol, seek immediate medical attention. Overdose symptoms include: psychomotor disturbances, visual and auditory hallucinations, decreased hearing and sight.
Which other medicines may affect Chloramphenicol?
Chloramphenicol may interact with the following groups of drugs:
For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Chloramphenicol, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.
How should I store Chloramphenicol?
Store the drug in a cool place protected from direct light out of reach of the children.