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Ciprofloxacin

Generic Name (active ingredient): Ciprofloxacin

Brand Name: Cipro

Ciprofloxacin is antibacterial medication from fluroquinolone group. It is prescribed to treat infections caused by susceptible microorganisms: ENT infections, urogenital and gynecological infections, gastrointestinal infections, arthritis, sepsis.

How does the medication work?

Ciprofloxacin is a broad spectrum fluroquinolone antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin possesses a dual mechanism of action, making it more powerful than other antibiotics.

A. Full blockade of DNA gyrase: Ciprofloxacin inhibits both subunits of DNA gyrase, superspiralized sites of chromosomal DNA molecules, violates the biosynthesis of DNA, bacterial growth and division. The action of ciprofloxacin (in contrast to other fluoroquinolones) is not inhibited by rifampicin or chloramphenicol. It can even be effective against bacteria resistant to other fluoroquinolones.

B. Ciprofloxacin causes significant morphological changes (destroys the cell wall and membrane of bacteria) and causes rapid destruction of bacterial cells, which enhances its bactericidal activity (quickly and reliably kills bacterial cells).

Ciprofloxacin posseses the following effects:

  • A broad spectrum of antibacterial activity
  • Very high concentrations in serum and tissues
  • Stable levels in the blood and tissues
  • Lack of toxicity

When Ciprofloxacin is prescribed?

Ciprofloxacin is used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms:

  • Respiratory tract infections
  • ENT infections
  • Urogenital tract infections
  • Gastrointestinal tract infections
  • Biliary tract infections
  • Skin and soft tissues infections
  • Sepsis
  • Peritonitis

What should I know before taking Ciprofloxacin?

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Ciprofloxacin or to any other medicines such as:

  • Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin and other

Do not take Ciprofloxacin if any of the below conditions apply to you:

  • Hypersensitivity to any of the medication ingredients
  • Deficiency of G6PD
  • Severe liver and kidney diseases
  • Pseudomembranous colitis
  • Patients under 18 years of age
  • Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding

Before taking Ciprofloxacin, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:

  • Atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels
  • Disorders of cerebral circulation
  • Psychotic diseases
  • Psychotic diseases
  • Epilepsy
  • Renal failure
  • Hepatic failure
  • Patients of elderly age

Ciprofloxacin belongs to a pregnancy category C meaning that it is not safe to use the medication during pregnancy because of very high risk of teratogenic effects and embryotoxicity.

How to take Ciprofloxacin:

Ciprofloxacin is available in the form of coated tablets, eye and ear drops, injectable solution.

Dosage of Ciprofloxacin is prescribed individually by physician.

Take the entire amount of Ciprofloxacin prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return.

If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.

What are the side effects of Cirofloxacin?

Ciprofloxacin is usually well tolerated and side effects are not common. The most common Ciprofloxacin side effects include:

  • Nausea
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Yeast infection
  • Inflammation of the nasal passages and throat
  • An urgency to urinate
  • Abnormal liver function tests
  • A rash
  • Indigestion or heartburn

The most commonly reported side effects of ciprofloxacin oral and injectable products in children included:

  • Abdominal (stomach) problems in general
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal (stomach) pain
  • Stuffy nose
  • Indigestion or heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • Asthma
  • Rash

The most common side effects of ciprofloxacin eye drops include:

  • Ear pain
  • Itching in the ear
  • Fungal ear infections
  • Headaches

Serious Ciprofloxacin side effects include:

  • Seizures
  • Unusual changes in thoughts or behavior
  • Swelling, pain, bruising, or rupture of a tendon
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Signs of liver problems
  • A thick, white vaginal discharge with itchiness or discomfort
  • Sign of allergic reactions

If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.

Which are Ciprofloxacin overdose symptoms?

If you overdose Ciprofloxacin, seek immediate medical attention. Overdose symptoms include: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, tremors, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, kidney problems.

Which other medicines may affect Ciprofloxacin?

Ciprofloxacin may interact with the following groups of drugs:

  • Antacids.
  • Caffeine
  • Corticosteroids
  • Iron supplements
  • Medications that cause a QT prolongation on ECG
  • NSAID's
  • P-glycoprotein inducers and P-glycoprotein inhibitors
  • Sulfonylureas
  • Vitamins that contain aluminum, calcium, magnesium, zinc, or iron
  • Blood thinners
  • Typhoid vaccine
  • Drugs such as Theophylline, Tizanidine, Sucralfate, Sevelamer,Ropinirole, Quinapril, Probenecid. Phenytoin, Pentoxifylline, Didanosine,Erlotinib,Methotrexate,Mycophenolate

For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Ciprofloxacin, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.

How should I store Ciprofloxacin?

You should store the medication at dry and protected from light place out of reach of children.