Co-trimoxazole

Generic Name (active ingredient): Co-trimoxazole
Brand Name: Biaxin, Biseptol

Co-trimoxazole is a combined broad-spectrum antibacterial medication. It is used to treat different infectious diseases caused by sensitive to the medication microorganisms: infection of the upper respiratory system (bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis), infections of the urogenital system (urethritis, cystitis), gastrointestinal infections, skin and soft tissue infections.

How does the medication work?
Co-trimoxazole is a combined antibacterial preparation with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Action mechanism is associated with the effects of the main ingredients: trimetoprim and sulfametoxazol which exert synergetic action on metabolism of folic acid. Chemical structure of sulfametoxazol is similar to p-amino-benzoic acid. Co-tromoxazol replaces the p-aminobenzoic acid during the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid in the bacterial cells. Tetrahydrofolic acid is necessary for synthesis of purine and pyrimidin compounds. Trimetoprim causes reverse inhibiting of dihydrofolate reductase - enzyme that participates in conversion of dihydrofolate into tetrahydrofolate. Co-trimoxazole is active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

When Co-trimoxazole is prescribed?

  • Respiratory tract infection (acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, pleural empyema, lung abscess
  • ENT infections: otitis media, sinusitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever
  • Urogenital infections: pyelonephritis, pyelitis, cystitis, urethritism prostatitis, gonorrhea, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, ulcerating granuloma of the pudenda
  • Gastrointestinal infections: dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, salmonellosis, cholera, cholecystitis, cholangitis, gastroenteritis caused by strains enterotoxic E.soli,

Other: osteomyelitis (acute and chronic), brucellosis (acute), sepsis, peritonitis, meningitis, brain abscess, osteoarticular infection, South American blastomycosis, malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), pertussis (in the complex therapy)
Co-tromoxazole is not used to treat infections caused by viruses and fungi
What should I know before taking Co-trimoxazole?
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Co-trimoxazole or to any other medicines such as:

  • Sulfadiazine, Sulfadiazine and other "sulfa" drugs

Do not take Co-trimoxazole if any of the below conditions apply to you:

  • Deficiency of G6PD
  • Renal failure
  • Hepatic failure
  • Aplastic anemia
  • 12- deficiency anemia
  • Agranulocytosis
  • Leukopenia
  • Hyperbilirubinemia in children

Before taking Co-trimoxazole, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:

  • Deficiency of folic acid
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Thyroid gland diseases

If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeed, you should take Co-trimoxazole only under a strict control of your doctor. Co-trimoxazole belongs to a pregnancy category C meaning that it is unsafe to use the medication during pregnancy. Talk to your doctor about risks of benefits of taking Co-trimoxazole during pregnancy.

How to take Co-trimoxazole:
Co-trimoxazole is available in the forms of tablets, extended-release tablets and oral suspension.
Co-trimoxazole is intended only for oral use (by mouth). Oral suspension should be shaken before the application. Co-trimoxazole tablets or oral suspension can be taken with or without food. Dosage of Co-trimoxazole is prescribed individually by physician.

Take the entire amount of Co-trimoxazole prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return.
If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.

What are the side effects of Co-trimoxazole?
Co-trimoxazole may cause the following side effects:

  • Abnormal taste
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Headache

Liss common Co-trimoxazole side effects include: sings of liver damage, hypoglycemia, seizures, bloody diarrhea, fainting, arrhythmia, dermatological allergic reactions
If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.

Which are Co-trimoxazole overdose symptoms?
If you overdose Co-trimoxazole, seek immediate medical attention. Overdose symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, intestinal colic, drowsiness, headache, depression, vision disorder, hematuria, crystalluria. In prolonged overdose: thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, jaundice. In case of overdose symptomatic treatment should be carried.

Which other medicines may affect Co-trimoxazole?
Co-trimoxazole may interact with the following groups of drugs:

  • Blood thinners
  • Xantines
  • Statins
  • QT-prolonging preparations
  • HIV drugs
  • Ergot derivatives
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Epilepsy treatment (carbamazepine)
  • Erectile dysfunction drug
  • Gout treatment (colchicine)

For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Co-trimoxazole, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.

How should I store Co-trimoxazole?
You should store the medication at dry and protected from light place out of reach of children.

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