Gentamicin

Generic Name (active ingredient): Gentamicin

Gentamicin is bactericidal aminoglycoside antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Gentamicin is highly active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria. It is used to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by susceptible organisms. It is available in different pharmaceutical forms.

How does the medication work?
Gentamicin penetrates bacterial cell wall, binds to 30S subunits of bacterial ribosomes and thus inhibits protein synthesis. It exerts bactericidal action against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It is highly effective against infections caused by gram-negative microorganisms. Gentamicin is highly effective against: Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Aerobacter aerogenes.

When Gentamicin is prescribed?
Gentamicin is used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible to the medication microorganisms:
Oral forms of gentamicin are used in:

  • Severe urinary tract infection including pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis
  • Gonococcal infections, including infections caused by strains resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics
  • Central nervous system infections (including meningitis) in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics
  • Generalized septicemic infection, septicemia (including neonatal sepsis)
  • Peritonitis
  • Acute cholecystitis, cholangitis
  • Purulent infection of skin and soft tissues, burn infection, wound infections
  • Progressive and deep-seated infection of the eyes
  • Infections of bones and joints.

Ointment and cream is used topically for treatment of bacterial skin infections caused by susceptible microorganisms to gentamicin:
Impetigo, pyoderma (including gangrenous);
Superficial folliculitis, furunculosis, ecthyma;
Sycosis, paronychia;
Infected seborrheic dermatitis, infected acne, Pustular acne
Infected contact and atopic dermatitis, infected excoriations
Pustular psoriasis
Secondary bacterial infection with fungal and viral infections of the skin;
Infected skin wounds of various etiologies (burns, wounds, it is difficult to heal ulcers, insect bites);
Infected and varicose trophic ulcers;
Infected skin cysts and other skin abscesses, have been subjected to autopsy and drainage;
Infected wounds in minor surgery.
Eye drops are shown in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the eye:

  • Blepharitis
  • Blepharoconjunctivitis
  • Dacryocystitis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Keratitis
  • Keratoconjunctivitis
  • Meibomitis

What should I know before taking Gentamicin?
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Gentamicin or to any other medicines such as:
- Tobramycin, Streptomycin, Netilmicin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics

Do not take Gentamicin if any of the below conditions apply to you:

  • Hypersensitivity to any of the medication ingredients
  • Individual intolerance
  • Neuritis of auditory nerve
  • Severe renal failure
  • Uremia
  • Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding

Before taking Gentamicin, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:

  • Liver diseases in anamnesis
  • Kidney diseases in anamnesis
  • Blood diseases

If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeed, you should take Gentamicin only under a strict control of your doctor. Gentamicin belongs to a pregnancy category C meaning that it is not safe to use the medication during pregnancy because of high risk of teratogenic effect, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, embryotoxic effect.

How to take Gentamicin:
Gentamicin is available in the forms of solution for injections, eye drops, cream and ointment. Dosage of Gentamicin is prescribed individually by physician. Injectable solution should be made only by a specialized medical staff. Take the entire amount of Gentamicin prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return. If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.

What are the side effects of Gentamicin?
High doses of Gentamicin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics may cause nephrotoxicity or neurotoxicity (especially ototoxicity).

  • Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, increased activity of liver transaminases, hyperbilirubinemia
  • Hemopoietic system: anemia,
  • Urinary system: oliguria, renal failure, proteinurina, leukocyturia, erythrocyturia.
  • CNS: headache, central nervous system, drowsiness, peripheral neuropathy, numbness, tingling, muscular twitching, neuromuscular block, ototoxicity, nystagmus, Meniere's disease, balance disorder,
  • Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching, urticaria, fever, joints pain, Quinke's edema.
  • Other: superinfection, drug fever, weight loss, hair loss, hyperptyalism, pulmonary fibrosis, hypotension or hypertension, localized pain at the injection site.
  • In local application: irritation, itching, redness at the place of injections.

If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.

Which are Gentamicin overdose symptoms?
If you overdose Gentamicin, seek immediate medical attention. Overdose symptoms include: hearing problems (even hearing loss), skin tingling, numbness, nerve damage (which often takes the form of muscle twitching), sometimes even seizures.

Which other medicines may affect Gentamicin?
Gentamicin may interact with the following groups of drugs:

  • Oto-and nephrotoxic drugs (cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, cephaloridine, paromomycin, , polymyxin B, colistin vancomycin, ethacrynic acid).
  • NSAID's
  • Loop diuretics
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Calcium containing drugs and supplements
  • M-cholinomimetics
  • Anemia drugs
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Beta-lactam antibiotics

Gentamicin should not be mixed in one syringe with other antibiotics.
For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Gentamicin, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.

How should I store Gentamicin?
You should store gentamicin forms at dry and protected from light place out of reach of children. Do not store the medication in the bathroom.

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