Isoniazid

Generic Name (active ingredient): Isoniazid
Brand Name: Amidon, Erbazid, INH, Isonex, Rimifon, Nydrazid

Isoniazid is the most effective of the isonicotinic acid hydrazide agents for any form and localization of active tuberculosis in adults and children.

How does the medication work?
The mechanism of action is associated with inhibition of mycolic acid synthesis in the cell wall of M.tuberculosis. Isoniazid has a bactericidal effect on mycobacteria in the stage of reproduction and bacteriostatic-in the resting stage. Isoniazid is particularly active against fast-reproducing microorganisms (including those located intracellularly).

When Isoniazid is prescribed?

  • Tuberculosis (of any location, in adults and children, as treatment and prevention, as part of combination therapy)

What should I know before taking Isoniazid?
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Isoniazid or to any other medicines such as:

  • isonicotinic acid hydrazide agents

Do not take Isoniazid if any of the below conditions apply to you:

  • Epilepsy
  • Severe psychosis
  • Tendency to convulsions
  • Poliomyelitis in the history
  • Toxic hepatitis in the history due to administration of isonicotinic acid hydrazide agents
  • Acute hepatic and renal failure

Before taking Isoniazid, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:

  • Alcoholism
  • Liver and / or kidney failure
  • Pregnancy
  • Decompensated cardiovascular diseases (CHF, angina, hypertension)
  • Hypothyroidism

If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeed, you should take Isoniazid only under a strict control of your doctor. Isoniazid belongs to a pregnancy category C meaning that it is not known whether this medicine is harmful to an unborn baby or whether it passes into the breast milk.

How to take Isoniazid:
Isoniazid is available in the forms of solution for intravenous and intramuscular injections, tablets.

Dosage of Isoniazid is prescribed individually by physician.

Take the entire amount of Isoniazid prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return.
If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.

What are the side effects of Isoniazid?
Isoniazid may cause the following side effects:

  • nervous system: headache, dizziness, rare-excessive fatigue or weakness, irritability, euphoria, insomnia, paresthesia, numbness of extremities, peripheral neuropathy, optic neuritis, polyneuritis, psychoses, mood changes, depression
  • cardiovascular system: palpitations, angina, increased blood pressure
  • digestive system: nausea, vomiting, stomachalgia, toxic hepatitis
  • allergic reactions: skin rash, itching, pyrexia, arthralgia
  • other: very rarely-gynecomastia, menorrhagia, bleeding tendency and hemorrhage

If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.

Which are Isoniazid overdose symptoms?
If you overdose Isoniazid, seek immediate medical attention. Overdose symptoms include: dizziness, dysarthria, apathy, disorientation, hyperreflexia, peripheral polyneuropathy, abnormal liver function, metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, glycosuria, ketonuria, seizures, coma

Which other medicines may affect Isoniazid?
Isoniazid may interact with the following groups of drugs:

  • paracetamol
  • ethanol
  • anti-asthmatic drugs
  • narcotic analgesics
  • other antibiotics
  • agents for correcting disturbances in alcoholism, drug addiction and toxic addiction
  • vitamin B6
  • potentially neuro-, hepato-and nephrotoxic drugs
  • coumarin and indandione derivatives
  • benzodiazepines
  • anticonvulsants
  • glucocorticoids
  • antacid remedies
  • some antifungal agents

For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Isoniazid, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.

How should I store Isoniazid?
Store the medicine at room temperature in a place protected from direct light and moisture. Keep away from children and pets.

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