Nitrofurantoin

Generic Name (active ingredient): Nitrofurantoin
Brand Name: Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin, Nitrofur Mac, Nitro Macro and Urantoin

Nitrofurantoin is antibacterial medication that belongs to a group of antibiotics called nitrofurans. It is used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.

How does the medication work?
Nitrofurantoin is a broad spectrum antibacterial medication that belongs to a group of medications called nitrofurans. Nitrofurantoin exerts bacteriostatic and bactericidal action against the most of microorganisms that cause urinary tract infections such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp. Being oxygen acceptors nitrofurantoin disturbs the processes of cellular respiration and inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acid.

When Nitrofurantoin is prescribed?
Nitrofurantoin is used to treat bacterial infection of the urinary system (pyelitis, pyelonephritis, cystitis,urethritis) caused by susceptible microorganisms
Prophylaxis of infections during urological interventions (cystoscopy, catheterization)

What should I know before taking Nitrofurantoin?
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to Nitrofurantoin or to any other medicines such as:

  • Nifuratel, Furazolidon, Nifuroxazide and other nitrofurans

Do not take Nitrofurantoin if any of the below conditions apply to you:

  • Hypersensitivity to any of the medication ingredient
  • Severe liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis)
  • Chronic heart failure
  • Deficiency of G6PD
  • Simultaneous application with alcohol
  • Severe kidney diseases (renal failure)
  • Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding
  • Children

Before taking Nitrofurantoin, tell your health care provider about any other medicines you take or if you have any of the following disorders:

  • Liver and kidney diseases in anamnesis
  • History of heart problems
  • Chronic alcoholism

If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or breastfeed, you should take Nitrofurantoin only under a strict control of your doctor. Nitrofurantoin belongs to a pregnancy category B meaning that safety of the medication was not studied in pregnant women.

How to take Nitrofurantoin:
Nitrofurantoin is available in the form of tablets which should be taken orally swallowing whole. Dosage of Nitrofurantoin is prescribed individually by physician.
Take the entire amount of Nitrofurantoin prescribed by your doctor, even if you feel better before the end of the treatment. If you stop taking medication too early, symptoms may return.
If you missed the scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember, but skip the dose if it is almost the time for the following dose. Do not take two doses at once.

What are the side effects of Nitrofurantoin?
Nitrofurantoin may cause the following side effects:

  • Respiratory system: chest pain, cough, dyspnea, pulmonary infiltrates, eosinophilia, interstitial pneumonitis or fibrosis, bronchial asthma patients with a history of asthma.
  • Digestive system: dyspepsia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, abdominal pain, diarrhea.
  • Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: peripheral neuropathy, headache, nystagmus, dizziness, drowsiness.
  • Hemopoietic system: leukopenia, granulocytopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia (these changes are reversible).
  • Allergic reactions: urticaria, Quincke's edema, itching, rash, anaphylactic shock.
  • Dermatological reactions: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme.
  • Other: fever, arthralgia, flu-like symptoms, superinfection of urinary tract caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

If you experience any side effect that last long or becomes bothersome, please inform your doctor as dose adjustment or treatment discontinuation may be required.

Which are Nitrofurantoin overdose symptoms?
If you overdose Nitrofurantoin, seek immediate medical attention. Overdose symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, disorders of central nervous system

Which other medicines may affect Nitrofurantoin?
Nitrofurantoin may interact with the following groups of drugs:

  • Quinolone antibiotics
  • Alcohol
  • Calcium channel blockers

For a complete list of possible interactions ask your doctor or pharmacist. Before taking Nitrofurantoin, let your doctor know what other medicines, including OTC, you currently take.

How should I store Nitrofurantoin?
You should store the medication at dry and protected from light place out of reach of children

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